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Pesawat tempur

Pesawat tempur adalah pesawat militer yang dirancang untuk menyerang pesawat lain di udara. Berbeda dengan pesawat pengebom, yang dirancang untuk menyerang target di permukaan. Pesawat tempur relatif lebih kecil, cepat, dan lincah.

Pesawat tempur awalnya dikembangkan pada Perang Dunia I, untuk menghadapi pesawat pengebom dan balon udara yang mulai lazim digunakan untuk melakukan serangan darat dan pengintaian.

Daftar isi

  1. Bertenaga Piston
    1. Perang Dunia 1 (1911-1918)
    2. Periode interwar (1919-1938)
    3. Perang Dunia 2 (1939-1945)
    4. Setelah Perang Dunia II
    5. Bertenaga roket
  2. Bertenaga jet
    1. Generasi pertama
    2. Generasi kedua
    3. Generasi ketiga
    4. Generasi keempat
    5. Generasi keempat setengah
    6. Generasi kelima
      1. Sudah digunakan
      2. Masih dibangun
      3. Technology demonstrators

Bertenaga Piston

Perang Dunia 1 (1911-1918)

  1. Vickers_F.B.5._GunbusVickers F.B.5
    Manufacturer Vickers Limited
    First flight 17 July 1914
    Introduced 5 February 1915
    Retired 1916
    Primary users Royal Flying Corps
    Aéronautique Militaire
    Number built 224
  2. Fokker_EIII_210-16Fokker Eindecker
    1915
    German Empire
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Fokker
    Number built 416
  3. Nieuport_11_C.1Nieuport 11
    FRA
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Nieuport
    Designed by Gustave Delage
    Introduced 5 January 1916
    Retired Summer of 1917
    Status Used as a trainer until the end of the First World War[1]
    Primary user Aéronautique Militaire
    Variants Nieuport 17, 24bis., 27
  4. Airco_D.H.2_ExCCAirco DH-2
    UK
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Airco
    Designed by Geoffrey de Havilland
    First flight July 1915
    Primary user Royal Flying Corps
    Number built 453
    Developed from Airco DH.1
  5. Albatros D.IIIAlbatros D.III
    German Empire
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Albatros-Flugzeugwerke
    Designed by Robert Thelen
    First flight August 1916
    Primary users Luftstreitkräfte
    Luftfahrtruppen
    Number built approximately 1866
  6. Nieuport 17Nieuport 17
    FRA
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Nieuport
    First flight January 1916
    Introduction March 1916
    Primary user Aéronautique Militaire
    Variants Nieuport 23
  7. Fokker Dr.I (replika)Fokker Dr.I
    German Empire
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Fokker-Flugzeugwerke
    Designed by Reinhold Platz
    First flight 5 July 1917
    Primary user Luftstreitkräfte
    Number built 320
  8. SPAD_XIII (Replika)SPAD S.XIII
    FRA
    Role biplane fighter
    National origin France
    Manufacturer SPAD
    Designed by Louis Béchéreau
    First flight 4 April 1917
    Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
    Royal Flying Corps
    US Army Air Service
  9. Nieuport 28Nieuport 28
    FRA
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Nieuport
    Designed by Gustave Delage
    First flight 14 June 1917
    Introduced March 1918
    Retired July 1918
    Primary users U.S. Army Air Service
    Aéronautique Militaire
    Number built about 300
  10. Sopwith F-1 CamelSopwith Camel
    UK
    Role Biplane fighter
    Manufacturer Sopwith Aviation Company
    First flight December 1916
    Introduction June 1917
    Primary users RFC (RAF)
    RNAS, AAF
    Number built 5,490
  11. Royal Aircraft Factory SE5aRoyal Aircraft Factory S.E.5
    UK
    Role Single-seat fighter
    Manufacturer various (see text)
    Designed by Henry Folland / J. Kenworthy / Major F.W. Goodden
    First flight 22 November 1916
    Introduced March 1917
    Primary users Royal Flying Corps
    United States Army Air Corps
    Royal Canadian Air Force
    Number built 5,205
  12. Fokker D VIIFokker D.VII
    German Empire
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Fokker-Flugzeugwerke
    Designed by Reinhold Platz
    First flight January 1918
    Primary user Luftstreitkräfte
    Number built approximately 1700
  13. Sopwith 7F.1 SnipeSopwith Snipe
    UK
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Sopwith Aviation Company
    Designed by Herbert Smith
    First flight October 1917
    Introduced 1918
    Primary users Royal Air Force
    Australian Flying Corps
    Canadian Air Force
    Number built 2,097
    Variants Sopwith Salamander
    Sopwith Dragon

Periode interwar (1919-1938)

Biplanes:

  1. Avia B534Avia B-534
    Czechoslovakia
    Role Fighter aircraft
    Manufacturer Avia
    Designed by František Novotný
    First flight 25 May 1933
    Introduced 1935
    Status Retired
    Primary user Czechoslovakian Air Force
    Number built 445
  2. Fiat CR.42 aka J11Fiat CR.42
    Italy
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Fiat
    Designed by Celestino Rosatelli
    First flight 23 May 1938
    Introduced 1939
    Retired 1945
    Primary user Regia Aeronautica
    Number built 1,817-1819
    Developed from Fiat CR.32
  3. Kawasaki KI-10 Type IKawasaki Ki-10 ‘Perry’
    Japan
    Role Biplane fighter
    Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries
    Introduced 1935
    Retired 1942
    Primary user IJA Air Force
    Number built 588
  4. Svenska Aero JaktfalkenSvenska Aero Jaktfalken
    Sweden
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Svenska Aero, ASJA
    Designed by Carl Clemens Bücker
    First flight 1929
    Primary users Swedish Air Force
    Finnish Air Force
    Royal Norwegian Air Force
    Number built 19
  5. Bristol BulldogBristol Bulldog
    United Kingdom
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Bristol Aeroplane Company Filton, Bristol
    Designed by Frank Barnwell
    First flight 21 January 1928
    Introduced 1929
    Primary users Royal Air Force
    Spanish Air Force
    Finnish Air Force
    Royal Australian Air Force
    Number built 443 (including prototypes and licence built)
  6. Gloster GladiatorGloster Gladiator
    United Kingdom
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Gloster Aircraft Company, Ltd.
    Designed by Henry Phillip Folland
    First flight 12 September 1934
    Introduced 1937
    Retired 1953 (Portugal)
    Primary users Royal Air Force
    Fleet Air Arm
    Chinese Nationalist Air Force
    Finnish Air Force
    Norwegian Army Air Service
    Number built 747
    Developed from Gloster Gauntlet
  7. Hawker Fury sqn 43Hawker Fury
    United Kingdom
    Role Fighter
    Manufacturer Hawker Aircraft
    First flight 25 March 1931
    Introduced 1931
    Primary users Royal Air Force
    South African Air Force
    Spanish Air Force
    Yugoslav Royal Air Force
    Number built 275
  8. Boeing P-12Boeing P12/F4B-4
    United States
    Role Fighter aircraft
    Manufacturer Boeing Aircraft Company
    First flight 1929
    Introduced 1930
    Retired 1941
    Primary users United States Army Air Force
    United States Navy
    Philippine Army Air Corps
    Royal Thai Air Force
    Produced 1929-1932
    Number built 586[1]
    *366 P-12
    *187 F4B
    *33 demonstrators and exports

Monoplanes:

  • Japan – Mitsubishi A5M ‘Claude’
  • Netherlands – Fokker D.XXI
  • Poland – PZL P.11
  • Soviet Union – Polikarpov I-16
  • United Kingdom – Hawker Hurricane
  • United States – Boeing P-26 Peashooter
  • United States – F2A Brewster Buffalo
  • Yugoslavia – Ikarus IK-2

Perang Dunia 2 (1939-1945)

Pada Perang Dunia II, pesawat tempur lebih banyak dibuat dari logam, bersayap tunggal, dan menggunakan senapan mesin yang tertanam pada sayap.

  • AUS
    • CAC Boomerang
  • FRA
    • Bloch MB.150
    • Dewoitine D.520
    • Morane-Saulnier M.S.406
  • FIN
    • VL Myrsky
  • ITA
    • Macchi C.200
    • Macchi C.202
    • Macchi C.205
    • Fiat G.55
    • Fiat G.50
    • Reggiane Re 2000
    • Reggiane Re 2001
    • Reggiane Re 2005
  • JPN
    • Kawanishi N1K-J
    • Nakajima Ki-27
    • Nakajima Ki-43
    • Nakajima Ki-44
    • Nakajima Ki-84
    • Kawasaki Ki-61
    • Kawasaki Ki-100
    • Mitsubishi A6M Zero
    • Mitsubishi J2M
  • Nazi Germany
    • Messerschmitt Bf 109
    • Messerschmitt Bf 110
    • Messerschmitt Me 210
    • Dornier Do 335 Pfeil
    • Focke-Wulf Fw 190
    • Heinkel He 100
    • Heinkel He 112
    • Junkers Ju 88C/R
  • POL
    • PZL P.24
  • Romania
    • IAR-80
  • SWE
    • Saab 21
    • FFVS J 22
  • USSR
    • Yakovlev Yak-1
    • Yakovlev Yak-3
    • Yakovlev Yak-7
    • Yakovlev Yak-9 ‘Frank’
    • Petlyakov Pe-3
    • Lavochkin LaGG-3
    • Lavochkin La-5
    • Lavochkin La-7|Lavochkin La-7 ‘Fin’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3
  • UK
    • Supermarine Spitfire
    • Supermarine Spiteful
    • Hawker Hurricane
    • Hawker Typhoon
    • Hawker Tempest
    • De Havilland Mosquito
    • Boulton Paul Defiant
    • Hawker Sea Fury
  • USA
    • Grumman F4F Wildcat
    • Vought F4U Corsair
    • Grumman F6F Hellcat
    • Curtiss P-36 Hawk
    • Lockheed P-38 Lightning
    • Bell P-39 Airacobra
    • Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
    • Republic Aviation Company|Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
    • North American Aviation|North American P-51 Mustang
    • Northrop P-61 Black Widow
    • Bell P-63 Kingcobra
    • North American P-64
    • Vultee P-66 Vanguard
    • P-70A Havoc
  • Yugoslavia
    • Rogozarski IK-3

Setelah Perang Dunia II

Mesin turbojet mulai menggantikan mesin piston, dan peluru kendali mulai digunakan untuk menggantikan senapan mesin sebagai senjata utama.

Beberapa pesawat bertenaga piston dan jet piston:

  • Czechoslovakia
    • Avia S-199
  • Soviet Union
    • Lavochkin La-9 ‘Fritz’
    • Lavochkin La-11 ‘Fang’
  • Spain
    • Hispano Aviación HA-1112
  • United States
    • Ryan FR-1 Fireball
  • Yugoslavia
    • Ikarus S-49

Bertenaga roket

  1. Lippisch Ente
    Terbang pertama kali Maret 1928
  2. Me 163
    1944 Jerman
  3. Me 262 (C-1a and C-2b)
    Lanjutan Me 163
  4. Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270
    USSR, hanya dibuat 2 buah
  5. Saunders-Roe SR.53
    Inggris

    SR.177 untuk maritim
  6. XF-91 Thunderceptor
    Amerika, mach 1

Bertenaga jet

Generasi pertama

  • Canada
    • Avro CF-100 Canuck
  • France
    • Dassault Ouragan
    • Dassault Mystère
    • Dassault Mystère IV
  • Nazi Germany
    • Heinkel He 162
    • Messerschmitt Me 262
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Shenyang J-5 ‘Fresco’
  • Sweden
    • Saab 21R
    • Saab 29 Tunnan
  • Soviet Union
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 ‘Fargo’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 ‘Fagot’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 ‘Fresco’
    • Lavochkin La-15 ‘Fantail’
    • Yakovlev Yak-15/17 ‘Feather’
    • Yakovlev Yak-23 ‘Flora’
    • Yakovlev Yak-25 ‘Flashlight’
  • United Kingdom
    • de Havilland Vampire
    • de Havilland Venom
    • Gloster Meteor
    • Hawker Sea Hawk
    • Supermarine Attacker
  • United States
    • Bell P-59 Airacomet
    • Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star
    • Republic F-84 Thunderjet
    • Republic F-84F Thunderstreak
    • North American F-86 Sabre
    • Northrop F-89 Scorpion
    • Lockheed F-94 Starfire
    • North American FJ-1 Fury
    • North American FJ-2/3/4 Fury
    • McDonnell F2H Banshee
    • McDonnell F3H Demon
    • Douglas F3D Skyknight
    • Douglas F4D Skyray
    • Vought F7U Cutlass
    • Grumman F9F Panther

Generasi kedua

  • France
    • Dassault Étendard IV
    • Dassault Super Mystère
    • Dassault Mirage III/5
  • India
    • HAL HF-24 Marut
  • Israel
    • IAI Nesher
  • Italy
    • Fiat G.91
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Shenyang J-6 ‘Farmer’
    • Chengdu J-7 ‘Fishbed’
  • Sweden
    • Saab 32 Lansen
    • Saab 35 Draken
  • Soviet Union
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 ‘Farmer’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F ‘Fishbed’
    • Sukhoi Su-7 ‘Fitter-A’
    • Sukhoi Su-9/11 ‘Fishpot’
  • United Kingdom
    • De Havilland Sea Vixen
    • English Electric Lightning
    • Gloster Javelin
    • Hawker Hunter
    • Supermarine Scimitar
    • Supermarine Swift
  • United States
    • Chance-Vought F-8 Crusader
    • Grumman F-9 Cougar
    • Grumman F-11 Tiger
    • North American F-100 Super Sabre
    • McDonnell F-101 Voodoo
    • Convair F-102 Delta Dagger
    • Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
    • Republic F-105 Thunderchief
    • Convair F-106 Delta Dart

Generasi ketiga

  • France
    • Dassault Mirage F1
  • Iran
    • HESA Azarakhsh
    • HESA Saeqeh
  • Israel
    • IAI Kfir
  • Japan
    • Mitsubishi F-1
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Shenyang J-8I/IIB&D ‘Finback’
    • Xian JH-7 ‘Flounder’
  • South Africa
    • Atlas Cheetah
  • Sweden
    • Saab 37 Viggen
  • Soviet Union
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21MF/bis ‘Fishbed’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 ‘Flogger’
    • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 ‘Foxbat’
    • Sukhoi Su-15 ‘Flagon’
    • Sukhoi Su-17/20/22 ‘Fitter’
    • Tupolev Tu-28 ‘Fiddler’
  • United States
    • McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
    • Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter / Tiger II

Generasi keempat

  • France
    • Dassault Mirage 2000/2000N/2000D
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Xian JH-7A ‘Flounder’
    • Shenyang J-11A ‘Flanker’
  • Republic of China
    • AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo
  • Soviet Union
    • Mikoyan MiG-29 ‘Fulcrum’
    • Mikoyan MiG-31 ‘Foxhound’
    • Sukhoi Su-27 ‘Flanker’
    • Sukhoi Su-33 ‘Flanker D’
  • United Kingdom/Germany/Italy
    • Panavia Tornado ADV
  • United States
    • Grumman F-14 Tomcat
    • McDonnell Douglas / Boeing F-15 Eagle
    • General Dynamics / Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon
    • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

Generasi keempat setengah

  • France
    • Dassault Rafale
  • Japan / United States
    • Mitsubishi F-2
  • India
    • HAL Tejas[8]
  • People’s Republic of China / Pakistan
    • JF-17 Thunder / FC-1 Fierce Dragon
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Chengdu J-10
    • Shenyang J-11B ‘Flanker’
  • Russia
    • Mikoyan Mig-29K ‘Fulcrum D’
    • Mikoyan MiG-29M ‘Fulcrum E’
    • Mikoyan MiG-35 ‘Fulcrum F’
    • Sukhoi Su-30M ‘Flanker ?’
    • Sukhoi Su-32/34 ‘Fullback’
    • Sukhoi Su-35 ‘Flanker E’
  • Russia / India
    • Su-30MKI ‘Flanker H’
  • Russia / People’s Republic of China
    • Su-30MKK/MK2 ‘Flanker G’
  • Sweden
    • Saab JAS 39 Gripen
  • United Kingdom / Germany / Italy / Spain
    • Eurofighter Typhoon
  • United States
    • McDonnell Douglas / Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle and derivatives
    • Lockheed Martin F-16E/F Block 60
    • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet

Masih dikerjakan:

  • South Korea
    • KF-X

Generasi kelima

Sudah digunakan

  • United States
    • Lockheed Martin / Boeing F-22 Raptor

Masih dibangun

  • India
    • Medium Combat Aircraft (diharapkan 2012)
  • People’s Republic of China
    • Shenyang J-XX
  • Russia
    • Sukhoi PAK FA (diharapkan 2009)
  • Russia / India
    • Sukhoi/HAL FGFA (2-seater variant of Sukhoi PAK FA)'[12]
  • United States/United Kingdom/Italy/Netherlands/Canada/Turki/Australia/Norway/Denmark
    • Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II (terbang pertama 2006)

Technology demonstrators

  • Japan
    • Mitsubishi ATD-X (terbang pertama diharapkan pada 2014)
  • Russia
    • Sukhoi Su-47 ‘Firkin’ (terbang pertama 1997)
    • Mikoyan Project 1.44 ‘Flatpack’ (terbang pertama 2000)
  • United States
    • Lockheed Martin YF-22 (terbang pertama 1990)
    • Northrop YF-23 Black Widow II (terbang pertama 1990)
    • Boeing Bird of Prey (terbang pertama 1996)
    • McDonnell Douglas X-36 (terbang pertama 1997)
    • Lockheed Martin X-35 (terbang pertama 2000)
    • Boeing X-32 JSF (X-32A terbang pertama 2000, X-32B terbang pertama 2001)
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